08

Jul

2011

Notes on the Musical Sources for the Themes Variés of Jensen Print E-mail
Written by Tom Moore   

The set of twelve variations and caprices, op. 10, for solo flute, of Kuhlau has been republished in various editions in recent decades, and is a valuable part of the teaching repertoire. The similar set by Niels Peter Jensen, a student of Kuhlau (also published by August Cranz in Hamburg) are works of high musical quality and are perhaps more technically demanding than those by Kuhlau, and nevertheless there is as yet no modern edition. Flutists can be grateful that the complete set has been digitized and is available for free download from the site of the Royal Library in Denmark1 . The original publication consists of two sets of six themes each, divided into a total of six cahiers, (three cahiers, each including two pieces, per set), also indicated as livres, numbered consecutively between the two sets. The pages are not numbered consecutively through all twelve themes, but only within each cahier. For ease of reference, below I will simply number the twelve themes consecutively as they appear in the publication (the first six are indicated with successive Roman numerals in the original; the second half-dozen are not). The publication is not dated, and has no plate numbers. The composer was born in 1802, so that judging by the dates of the sources he uses would give a perhaps improbably early date for the set (1814?). More appropriate might be a date sometime in 1820s.

No. 1. Romanze aus Joseph von Mehul: Ich war Jüngling noch von Jahren

This famous opera, by perhaps the most successful composer of the post-revolutionary period, premiered in Paris, Feb. 1807. It narrates the familiar story from Genesis of Jacob’s son, Joseph, and his brothers. The original French title of this romance was A peine au sortir de l'enfance. The opera was performed on the German stage in at least three different translations (titled variously Jakob und seine Sohne, Jakob und seine Sohne in Agypten, and Joseph und seine Bruder).2

The romance, extracted from the opera, had become a part of the repertoire of German folk-song by 1858, when it was published in Saengerlust: Singe, wem Gesang gegeben. Neuestes Taschenliederbuch, Neustadt a.d.H., St. Louis, Mo:  Eduard Witter, Conrad Witter, and is cited as such in the AMZ, 1877, no. 21, p. 3233. It was the subject for variation sets for piano solo by composers including Weber, F.X. Mozart, Gelinek, A.E. Muller, and Henri Herz, and was also known by the German titles  “Ein Knabe noch war ich an Jahren” and “Einst zog ich an der Bruder Seite”.

Ich war Jüngling noch von Jahren,     I was still young in years,

Vierzehn zahlte kaum ich nur,    Scarcely fourteen years of age,

Und ich träumte nicht Gefahren,   I did not dream of dangers,

Folgte meiner Brüder Spur.   But followed my brothers’ footsteps.

Sichem gab uns sette Weide,     Shechem gave us rich pastures –

Sie gehörte unserm Stamm;     It belonged to our tribe.

Niemand that ich was zu Leide     I did no one ill,

Und war schüchtern wie ein Lamm.    And was as bashful as a lamb.

 

Wo drei Palmen einsam stehen,     Where three palm trees stand, alone,

Lag ich im Gebet vor Gott; I was in prayer to God,

Da begann, ach, ihr Vergehen     And then the band of my brothers

Meiner Brüder freche Rott'.   Began their crime.

Eine Grube war daneben,     There was a pit nearby,

Da hinein versenkt man mich;   Into which they threw me.

Ach, ich denk daran mit Beben!   Ah! I remember with trembling!

Sie war seucht und schauerlich.     It was damp and horrible.

 

Endlich ward ich ausgezogen,   Finally I was taken out,

Ich war schon dem Tode nah!     When I was close to death.

Durst nach Gold hatt' überwogen,     Thirst for gold was more important –

Sklavenhändler waren da.   There were slave dealers there.

Diesen ward ich hingegeben.   I was handed over to them,

Gierig theilten sie das Gold:     And greedily they shared the gold.

Meines theuren Vaters Leben     The life of my dear father, sticks,

Klebt vielleicht am Sündensold.   Perhaps to the wages of sin.4

No. 2 Der Minnesänger von Weber: Ueber die Berge mit Ungestüm

This comes from the music by Carl Maria von Weber for the stage work Der arme Minnesänger by August von Kotzebue5, where it is a song for Goswin, the Minnesinger of the title, who sings it in the first scene, to the accompaniment of his zither. Thus the scoring of the original version for voice and guitar, with a subsequent arrangement for piano, which bears the opus number op. 25, no. 2. The date of composition is given as May 8, 1811. The song does not seem to have been popular with those writing variation sets.

Ueber die Berge mit Ungestüm    Over the mountains impetuously

Vor der Liebe ein Iüngling lief,   A young man ran before his love;

Meinte sie wäre hinter ihm,   He thought she was behind him,

Aber sie saß im Herzen tief    But she sat deep in his heart,

Und ließ mit selmischem Wohlbehagen     And lets him with pleasure

Sich über die Berge schaukeln und tragen.    Go vaulting over the mountains.

 

Seine Zither schlug er entzwei,   His zither he struck and broke in two,

Wahnend, daß der Liebe Nest ,     Believing, as he raved, that the nest of

In der Zither verborgen sey.     Love was hidden in the zither.

Aber sie saß in der Hand ihm fest!     But it just sat there in his hand.

Will er die neuen Saiten berühren:   If he should once more touch its strings,

Läßt sie schon wieder sich hören und spüren.   It can once more be heard and felt.

 

Ist er endlich doch heimgekehrt,     When he finally returns home,

Klopft an die Thür, es ruft herein,   And knocks on the door, and calls inside,

Als er die klare Stimme gehört,    When he hears the clear voice answering,

Hat er gedacht, wer mag das seyn?   Has he thought, who it might be?

Lauscht er behende durch flimmernde Ritzen,   He listens intently through the glimmering cracks,

Sieht er die Liebe am Herde schon sitzen7. And sees his love sitting at the hearth.

No. 3 Romanze aus Johann von Paris: Der Troubadour! stolz auf der Liebe Bande!

This romance is taken from the opera by Adrien Boieldieu, Jean de Paris, premiered in Paris April 4, 1812. It was adapted as Herr Johann von Paris for Vienna by the librettist Joseph Ritter von Seyfried, the libretto published in Vienna in 1812, the opera performed in Vienna in 1813 8. The Romance appears at the beginning of the second of two acts. Its first verse is sung by Olivier, second by Johann, third by the Princess. The original French began “Le Troubadour, fier de son doux servage”. I have not found other instrumental settings under either the German or French title.

Der Troubadour, stolz auf der Liebe Bande, The Troubadour, proud in the bonds of Love,

folgt deiner Spur, eilend von Lande zu Lande. Follows Love’s tracks, hastening from land to land.

Durch Hain und Flur erschallen Klagetöne: Through field and grove sound tones of lamentation,

gieb, holde Schöne, dir winkt Natur, Give, lovely beautiful one, a little kiss to the

ein Küßchen nur dem Troubadour! Troubadour – nature beckons to you.

 

Der Troubadour, seufzend von Liebesgrame, The Troubadour, sighing with Love’s woes,

weint auf der Flur, singend das Lob der Dame. Weeps in the meadow, singing praises of his Lady.

Gieb, o Natur, daß ihr Herz sein Wünschen kröne! Cause, o Nature, her heart to crown his wishes!

Gieb, holde Schöne etc. Give, lovely beautiful one....


„Freund Troubadour! wisse, was ich begehre: “Friend Troubadour! Know, what I think:

du liebest nur den Frohsinn und die Ehre; You love only merriment and honor;

doch sage nur, ob man auf Treue rechnen könne: But say, if one can count on your faithfulness:

dann folgt die Schöne auch der Natur, hält Liebesschwur dem Troubadour!" Then the Beauty will follow nature, and keep a loving vow to the Troubadour!”9 10

No. 4 Lied an die Rose: Die Rose blüht! Ich gleich der Biene

Unlike the first three songs set by Jensen, this does not seem to come from the stage. The text incipit given in the edition clearly reads “ich gleich der Biene” but the normative version seems to be “ich bin die fromme Biene”. A detailed description of the history of the poem11 can be found at the Liederlexikon site of the Deutsches Volksliedarchiv. The melody used by Jensen is a more elaborate version, transposed to G, of the version for voice and guitar by Ludwig Berger, 1811. Compare the scan of the Berger MS12. - even though the manuscript clearly has an F# for the first note of the melody, based on a comparison with the Jensen, it would seem that it should be emended to an E. Once again, Jensen seems to be the only composer to have chosen this for variations.

Die Rose blüht, ich bin die Fromme Biene The rose blooms, I am the pious bee

Und Rühre zwar die keuschen Blätter an And touch the chaste leaves

Daher ich Thau und Honig Schöpfen kann So that I can create honey and dew;

Doch lebt ihr Glanz und bleibet immer grüne Yet her shine continues, and remains evergreen,

Und allso bin ich wohl gemüth And thus I am content

Weile meine Rose blüth. Because my rose blooms.

 

Die Rose blüht Gott laß den Schein verziehen The rose blooms, God lets its shine continue

Damit die Zeit des Sommers langsam geht So that summertime goes slowly

Und weder Frost, noch andere Noth entsteht And neither frost, nor other need arises,

So wird mein Glück in dieser Rose blühn So my happiness will bloom in this rose

Dann klingt mein süsses Freudenlied And my sweet song of joy will sound,

O meine Rose blüht. O, my rose blooms.

 

Die Rose blüht sie lacht vor andern Rosen The rose blooms, she laughs before the other roses

Mit solcher Zier und Herzempfindlichkeit With such ornament and sensitivity

Dass auch mein Sinn sich zu der Pflicht erbeut That my sense also bows to its duty

Mit keiner Blum im Garden zu Liebkosen To refrain from love’s caresses with other blooms

Weil alles was mann sonsten sieht, For all that one might see elsewhere

In dieser Rose blüht. Blooms in this rose.

No. 5. Spanisches Lied von L. Reichart: Nach Sevilla, nach Sevilla!

The poem is from the pen of Clemens Brentano, and was written for his Lustpiel “Ponce de Leon”, from 1801. The setting, for voice and piano or guitar, is by Luise Reichardt, and was published in at least three early German editions by the 1820s. The poem was used for settings by other nineteenth-century composers including Joseph Dessauer, Heinrich Lemcke, Alfred Tofft, and even an early twentieth-century setting by Kor Kuiler, published in 1918. There is also a set of variations on the song (presumably the Reichart setting) for high voice published as op. 19 by Friedrich Silcher, but no instrumental settings.

Nach Sevilla, nach Sevilla, To sweet Seville, to sweet Seville,

Wo die hohen Prachtgebäude Where the stately mansions raise

In den breiten Strassen stehen, Marble fronts in street and square,

Aus den Fenstern reiche Leute, Where the rich from windows gaze

Schön geputzte Frauen sehen, Donnas gayly decked and fair,

Dahin sehnt mein Herz sich nicht. There my heart longs not to go!

 

Nach Sevilla, nach Sevilla, To sweet Seville, to sweet Seville,

Wo die letzten Häuser stehen, Where the scattered houses end,

Sich die Nachbarn freundlich grüssen, Friendly neighbors smile and greet,

Mädchen aus den Fenstern sehen, Maidens from their windows bend,

Ihre Blumen zu begiessen, Watering their flowers sweet,

Ach, da sehnt mein Herz sich hin. Thither longs my heart to go!

 

In Sevilla, in Sevilla, In sweet Seville, in sweet Seville,

Weiss ich wohl ein kleines Stübchen, Know I too a room so neat,

Helle Küche, stille Kammer, Chamber silent, kitchen bright,

In dem Hause wohnt mein Liebchen, In that house resides my sweet,

Und am Pförtchen glänzt ein Hammer, On the door a knocker bright,

Poch' ich, macht die Jungfrau auf. When I knock the maiden opens.

 

Nach Sevilla, nach Sevilla! To sweet Seville, to sweet Seville,

Hin zu ihr, der Heissgeliebten! To my best beloved I hie,

Hin muss ich zu ihren Füssen, At her feet to sink in bliss,

Sie zu sehen, sie zu sprechen, To converse with speaking eye,

Sie zu herzen, sie zu küssen, To caress her with a kiss,

Dahin sehnt mein Herz sich sehr.13 There my heart so longs to go.

No. 6 Wiegenlied, von Weber: Schlaf! Herzens-Söhnchen

This is the lullaby by Carl Maria von Weber, composed September 13, 1810, setting a text by Franz Carl Hiemer (1768-1822) for voice and guitar or piano, and published as op. 13, no. 2.14 Hiemer also contributed the libretti for two operas by Weber, Silvana, premiered 1810, and Abu Hassan, premiered 181115. There is a set of seven variations on the tune for piano solo by Wilhelm Hahn, published by Breitkopf & Hartel in 1816.

Schlaf, Herzenssöhnchen, mein Liebling bist du, Sleep, little son of my heart, you are my darling,

schließe die blauen Guckäugelein zu. Close your little blue eyes.

Alles ist ruhig, ist still wie im Grab, All is quiet, is still as the grave,

schlaf nur, ich wehre die Fliegen dir ab. Sleep, and I will brush the flies away.

 

Jetzt noch, mein Püppchen, ist goldene Zeit, Now, my little doll, is the golden time,

später, ach später ist's nimmer wie heut'; Later, ah later is never like today

stellen erst Sorgen ums Lager sich her, Cares will come to stay around,

Herzchen, da schläft sich's so ruhig nicht mehr. And you will not be able to sleep so peacefully.

 

Engel vom Himmel, so lieblich wie du, The angels from heaven, as darling as you,

schweben um's Bettchen und lächeln dir zu. Float over your little bed and smile at you.

Später zwar steigen sie auch noch herab, Later they will fly away again,

aber sie trocknen nur Tränen dir ab. But first they will dry your tears.

 

Schlaf, Herzenssöhnchen, und kommt gleich die Nacht, Sleep, little son of my heart, and even when the night comes,

sitzt deine Mutter am Bettchen und wacht, Your mother will sit by your bed and watch over you.

sei es so spät auch und sei es so früh, No matter how late, no matter how early,

Mutterlieb', Herzchen, entschlummert doch nie. Your mother’s love, dear heart, will never fall asleep.

No. 7 Cavatina aus Tancred, v. Rossini. Nach so viel Leiden.

This is the famous “Di tanti palpiti” from the opera Tancred of Rossini, which was premiered on February 6, 1813 at the Teatro La Fenice in Venice. It was a favorite subject for variations (usually under the Italian title), with sets for piano (Latour, Gelinek, Schwencke, Dale), piano four hands (Ries, Plachy), guitar (Giuliani), harp (Bochsa), and even another set for solo flute (Gebauer).

Original text: Di tanti palpiti.

Nach so viel Leiden

Warten, o Holde

Mein Himmelsfreuden

In Deinem Arm.

After so many woes,

My heavenly joys, o lovely,

Wait in your arms.

Italian:

Di tanti palpiti, di tante pene,

da te mio bene, spero mercà.

Mi rivedrai... ti rivedrà...

ne' tuoi bei rai mi pascero.

Deliri, sospiri...

accenti, contenti!

Sarà felice, il cor mel dice,

il mio destino vicino a te.

I hope for reward, from you, my dear,

For so many palpitations, so many pains.

You will see me again – I will see you again

I will graze in your fair beams.

Deliriums, sighs,

Happy words!

My destiny, my heart tells me,

Will be happy next to you.

The German libretto for Tancred was published in Dresden, no year on the publication (1813).16

No. 8 Lied: Der Sanger. Schone Madchen lust’ge Knaben.

The correct text is Schöne Mädels lustge Knaben, as appears under the first line of music. This is a poem by Anton Seyfried, Offizier in Munchen, whose poetical works were published in two volumes in 1808 in Augsburg. It is published in a score with no attribution by Böhme in Hamburg in the early 19th century. The way in which the title is presented in Jensen’s publication makes one think that the tune is taken from a work for the stage (Der Sanger) , but I have not yet been able to identify such a work. There is another instrumental setting, anonymous, indexed by RISM, for violin and guitar, but in G, rather than F.17

No. 9 Treuer Tod, von Th. Korner. Der Krieger muss zum blut’gen Kampf.

As I note in my article on the flute solos of Heinrich Soussmann [not yet published], this is based on a lied with poetry by Theodor Körner and music by Mauro Giuliani 18. The early setting by Soussmann is closer to the Giuliani, being in the same key, and retaining the instrumental interlude from the song. Jensen transposes the tune to A major, with a more comfortable tessitura for the flute. And here is yet another tune for which the original setting was for voice with guitar accompaniment.

Der Ritter muß zum blut’gen Kampf hinaus, The Knight must go to the bloody battle,

Für Freiheit, Ruhm und Vaterland zu streiten. To fight for freedom, glory and Fatherland.

Da zieht er noch vor seines Liebchens Haus, And so he goes to his beloved’s house,

Nicht ohne Abschied will er von ihr scheiden. And will not depart ere saying farewell.

»O weine nicht die Äuglein rot, “Oh do not weep, until your eyes are red,

Als ob nicht Trost und Hoffnung bliebe! As if there were no hope, no consolation!

Bleib’ ich doch treu bis in den Tod I will be faithful until death

Dem Vaterland und meiner Liebe.« To the Fatherland, and to my love.”

 

Und als er ihr das Lebewohl gebracht, And as he said his farewell to her,

Sprengt er zurück zum Haufen der Getreuen; He leapt back to the group of the faithful;

Er sammelt sich zu seines Kaisers Macht, He joined with the might of his Emperor,

Und mutig blickt er auf der Feinde Reihen. And courageously faced the rows of the enemy.

»Mich schreckt es nicht, was uns bedroht, “I am not afeared by that which threatens,

Und wenn ich auf der Walstatt bliebe. If I stay upon the battlefield.

Denn freudig geh’ ich in den Tod For joyfully I go to death

Für Vaterland und meine Liebe.« For Fatherland, and for my love.”

 

Und furchtbar stürzt er in des Kampfes Glut, And terribly he launches himself into the heat of battle,

Und tausend fallen unter seinen Streichen. And thousands fall beneath his blows.

Den Sieg verdankt man seinem Heldenmut; Victory is thanks to his heroic courage,

Doch auch den Sieger zählt man zu den Leichen. But even the victors are numbered among the fallen.

»Ström’ hin, mein Blut, so purpurrot! “Stream out, my blood, so purple-red!

Dich rächten meines Schwertes Hiebe. My sword-blows avenged you.

Ich hielt den Schwur, treu bis in den Tod I kept my oath, to be true till death

Dem Vaterland und meiner Liebe.« To Fatherland, and to my love.”

No. 10 Rauberlied, aus der Rauberburg. Willkommen warmer Purpurtrank.

Both no. 10 and no. 12 are settings of songs from the opera Roverborgen (The Robber’s Castle) by Kuhlau, Jensen’s teacher, premiered in 1814. The text for these two songs is taken from the drama Der Rauberburg by Adam Gottlob Oehlenschläger, found in his Schriften, vol. 11, with his Lust – und Singspiele, where it is translated into German by the author from the Danish original used for the Kuhlau opera. The Rauberlied is sung by Rocheloup, the leader of the bandits19.

Willkommen, warmer Purpurtrank! Welcome, warm purple drink!

Heil, Heil Dir, Bacchus, Preis und Dank! Hail, hail to you, Bacchus! Thanks and praise!

Der Weihrauch wallt hoch in den Zweigen, The incense rises high into the branches,

Wir grüßen Dich mit kühnen Reigen. We greet you with clever dances.

Im grünen Schatten, engvertraut, In the green shade, close together,

Hat Pan den Tempel uns erbaut, Pan has built his temple for us,

O Bacchus, hör' beim Becherklang O Bacchus, hear as our glasses clink,

Den Iagdgesang, den Raubgesang! Our hunting song, our robbing song!

Chor. O Bacchus, hör' beim Becherklang Den Iagdgcsang, den Raubgesang.

Chorus: O Bacchus, hear as our glasses clink, Our hunting song, our robbing song!

 

In Burg und Stadt ist Bacchus kalt. In city and town Bacchus is cold,

Am liebsten freut er sich im Wald, He most enjoys himself in the forest,

Da läßt er sich in wilden Rosen Where he can enjoy the caresses of

Von Nymphen an der Quelle kosen. Nymphs among wild roses at the source.

Wenn höher steigt der Frevelmuth, If the desire for crime increases,

Und Wein sich mischt mit dunkelm Blut, And wine is mixed with dark blood,

Dann freuet ihn beim Becherklang Then he enjoys, midst glasses’ clink,

Der Iagdgesang, der Raubgesang. Our hunting song, our robbing song.

Chor. Dann freuet ihn beim Becherklang Der Iagdgesang, der Raubgesangl

Chorus: Then he enjoys, midst glasses’ clink, Our hunting song, our robbing song.

 

Das Beste fehlt im Wald uns doch, The best still awaits us in the forest,

O, Vater Pan, das sende noch! O, Father Pan, do send it!

Mit nackten Schultern, losen Haaren, With naked shoulders, and hair let down,

Der Bacchusnymphen schöne Schaaren, The beauteous throngs of Bacchus’ nymphs,

Die in den Schatten zieh'n, wie wir, Who come to the shadows, as do we,

Voll süßer, üpp'ger Raubbegier. Full of sweet and lusty desire to rob.

Dann tönet Dir dem Wald entlang Then may resound to you throughout the wood

Der Iagdgesang, der Raubgesang! Our hunting song, our robbing song!

Chor. Dann tönet Dir dem Wald entlang, Der Iagdgesang, der Raubgesang.

Chorus: Then may resound to you throughout the wood, Our hunting song, our robbing song!

No. 11 Polonoise vom Grafen Oginsky.

Count Oginsky was Michał Kleofas Ogiński, to use the Polish spelling of his name. He was born in 1765, and died in 1833, a composer, soldier, diplomat and Polish patriot. This is taken from an Oginsky Polonoise for piano in G, presumably known to Jensen from one of the various collections of the polonoises published by houses such as Peters, Haslinger, and Böhme, the latter also located in Hamburg, where Cranz published this collection for Jensen.

No. 12 Romanze aus der Rauberburg. Ich sterbe gern, doch ohne Muth.

See no. 10 above. The Romance is from Act 3, where it is sung by Camillo.

Ich sterbe gern, doch ohne Muth; I die willingly, but without spirit;

Die Höll' ist, wo ich hin mich wende, To Hell is where I travel;

Denn roth hab' ich gefärbt die Hände, For I have stained my hands red

In meiner Rosa jungem Blut. With the young blood of my Rosa.

Sie trog mich, ach, — sie war so jung; She betrayed me – ah, she was so young;

Groß war die Räch' und ungeheuer, Great and terrible was my vengeance,

Ietzt brennt sie in dem ew'gen Feuer, Now she is burning in the eternal flames,

Und ruft mich mit Verzweifelung. and desperately calls to me.

 

Ich muß dahin, mir ist so bang; I must depart, I am so sad;

Von Gott hat sich mein Herz gewendet, My heart has turned away from God,

Der Teufel hat mein Aug' verblendet, The Devil has blinded my eyes,

In seinem Netze sitz' ich lang. and I have sat for a long time in his net.

Dem schnöden Räuber schwur ich Treu, I swore allegiance to the vile robber,

Jetzt hat der Böse sie gerochen: And now the Evil One has smelled it out;

Ich habe meinen Eid gebrochen, I have broken my oath,

Und Meineid steigert meine Schuld and my perjury increases my guilt.

 

Nur Eins mein armes Herz begehrt: Only one thing does my heart desire:

Dich rett' ich, Du sollst nicht verderben; I will rescue you, you shall not come to ruin;

Wenn das gethan, so laß mich sterben, If this is done, then I may die,

O, edler Ritter, durch Dein Schwert. O, noble Knight, by your sword.

Und wann erlöst und glücklich Du And if you are saved, and happily

Die edle Braut umarmest wieder, Embrace your noble bride once more,

O, laß dann singen fromme Lieder, O, then let pious songs be sung

Für zweier armen Seelen Ruh! 20 For the repose of two poor souls!

Notes:

1. http://img.kb.dk/ma/dankam/pjensen-6themvar.pdf

2. Google books

3. Google books

4. Google books

5. The play can be found in vol. 34 of the Theater of Kotzebue, which has been digitized by the Bavarian State Library. URN: urn:nbn:de:bvb:12-bsb10113055-7

6. http://www.weber-gesamtausgabe.de/?id=56

7. Google books

8. Zaalbooks

9. Google books

10. Google books

11. http://www.liederlexikon.de/lieder/die_rose_blueht_ich_bin_die_fromme_biene

12. http://www.liederlexikon.de

13. Translated by A. Baskerville

14. http://www.weber-gesamtausgabe.de/?id=73

15. http://www.oper-um-1800.uni-koeln.de/einzeldarstellung_librettist.php?id_librettist=494&herkunft=

16.Google books

17. http://opac.rism.info/

18. Available at http://imslp.org/wiki/Der_treue_Tod_%28Giuliani,_Mauro%29

19. Google books

20. Google books

Tom MooreTom Moore is a journalist, musician, and translator living in Rio de Janeiro. He has recorded Telemann for Lyrichord (USA) and Boismortier for A Casa Discos (Brazil). He writes about music for BrazilMax, Musica Brasileira, 21st Century Music, Opera Today, Flute Talk, Sonograma, Early Music America, and other venues.